Transportation is one of the essential services in cities that contribute to the quality of life. As a result, efficient methods for transport planning have become increasingly important. Decision makers have considered collaborative strategies to reduce the overall cost of the supply process and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of urban logistics systems.
The advent of new technologies in last mile deliveries is about to cause a disruption in the traditional business model applied in city logistics. In this context, identifying new business and operations models and vehicles that could be applied for last mile deliveries in urban areas becomes crucial