New system dynamics research shows that, from a long-term perspective, the implementation of underground logistics systems (ULS) has high benefits for urban sustainable development. Simulation results show that ULS, as a supplement to the urban integrated transport system, can significantly improve urban traffic and logistics.
ULS is a more effective and sustainable approach than that which is adopted currently, such as traffic restrictions and adopting energy-saving truck, to alleviate freight traffic problems. However, despite the great economic and social benefits, ULS still did not get a wide application because of the low social cognition degree.
The Impact of Underground Logistics System on Urban Sustainable Development: A System Dynamics Approach, Jianjun Dong, Yuanxian Xu, Bon-gang Hwang, Rui Ren, and Zhilong Chen. in Sustainability 2019