Research in New York assesses the parking needs of freight and service related commercial activities and identifies the role of demand management in mitigating these needs. The results show that parking needs are proportional to the average parking durations. Essentially, the longer the duration the higher the parking needs. In terms of impacts on demand management.
The results of the study show that the 100% Off-Hour Deliveries (OHD) program is expected to be the most impactful as it reduces the parking needs by 70 to 80% during peak hours. Staggered Deliveries reduces parking needs by about 60% during peak hours. A combination of the OHD Scenario and the Receiver-Led Consolidation programs offer about a 10 to 25% reduction. The study also shows that minimizing parking duration required parking location closer to the establishments. The further away the vehicle is parked the longer the walking time to the establishment, hence increasing the time the vehicle occupies the parking spot.
The strategies applied to the case studies showed that Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies are effective in decreasing the number of parking spots needed during peak periods.
Campbell, S., Holguín-Veras, J., Ramirez-Rios, D. G., González-Calderón, C., Kalahasthi, L., & Wojtowicz, J. (2018). Freight and service parking needs and the role of demand management. European Transport Research Review, 10(2), 47.